Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factor Among Public School Teachers in Jimma Town, Southwest, Ethiopia 2020: A Multidisciplinary Cross-Sectional Study | BMC Psychiatry

Framework and period of study

The study was conducted from December 1 to December 30, 2020. GC in public schools in the city of Jimma. The city of Jimma is located in Oromia Regional State, 352 km from the capital of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, to the southwest. The estimated total population of the city is 210,908. In the city there are 33 public schools: of these twenty-seven were primary schools and six were secondary schools. There are 2018 public school teachers in Jimma city. Among them, 1332 are primary school teachers and 686 are secondary school teachers.

study design

A cross-sectional institutional study was used.

Source population

All public school teachers working in Jimma city.

Study population

All randomly selected public school teachers in Jimma city.

Eligibility criteria

Integration criteria

All public school teachers in Jimma city who have been serving for more than 6 months and are currently serving were included in this study.

Exclusion criteria

Teachers who are on maternity and sick leave for different reasons and teachers who are seriously ill during the data collection period were excluded from this study.

Sample size estimation and sampling technique

Sample size estimation

A single population proportion formula was used to estimate the sample size. The prevalence of depression of 29.3% among Nigerian teachers was obtained for this objective, at (95% confidence level), a margin of error of 5%. Since the source population is less than 10,000, using the correction formula ((frac{n_o}{1+frac{n_o}{N}})) and assuming 1.5 for the design effect and a nonresponse rate of 10%, the final sample size was 456.

Sampling technique

A multistage sampling technique was employed. According to the recommendation of the World Health Organization, 30% of public schools were first selected, which means eleven schools out of a total of 33 schools by a lottery method of simple random sampling technique. Out of twenty-seven primary schools, nine [9] schools and two out of six high schools [6] public schools were included in the study. Then, after a proportional distribution of the sample size was made according to the number of teachers. From primary, 301 teachers are selected out of 1332 teachers, and from secondary, 155 teachers have been selected out of 686 teachers. Finally, a simple random sampling technique lottery method was used to select study participants from each teacher using teacher enrollment as the sampling frame (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1

Display Proportional Distribution of School Teacher Sample Prepared by Principal Investigator in Jimma Town, South West, Ethiopia 2020

Operational definition

Depressive symptoms: participants who scored ≥ 10 on the DASS-21 score were considered to have depressive symptoms.

Anxiety symptoms: participants who scored ≥8 on the DASS-21 score were considered to have anxiety symptoms.

Welfare: Using the Oslo Social Support Scale, these teachers scored

Occupational stress level: The Occupational Stress Index (OSI) was used to measure OS. According to the total scores of the scale, the teachers’ OS was divided into:

  • ➢ Light level of SG (total score: 46 to 122),

  • ➢ Moderate level of SG (total score: 123-155)

  • ➢ Severe OS level (total score: 156–230)

Current substance use: consumption of cats, alcohol, cigarettes, cannabis and other psychoactive substances or drugs in the last 3 months.

Data collection instruments and procedures

A structured interview was used to collect the data. The first part assesses information on socio-demographic data. Depression, anxiety and stress were assessed using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21) questionnaire. It is a validated and reliable instrument with 21 items in three domains. Each domain has seven. The scores for each dimension were added together and multiplied by two. Then, those who scored higher between 0 and 9 for depression considered normal, 10 to 13 for mild depression, 14 to 20 for moderate depression, 21 to 28 for severe depression, and above 28 were considered an extreme case of depression. For anxiety, those scoring above eight and for stress above fifteen were considered to have the case. [28,29,30]. It has excellent Cronbach’s alpha values ​​of 0.81, 0.89, and 0.78 for depression subscales. Anxiety and stress respectively [30]. In this study, the internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) was 0.82, 0.85, and 0.92 for depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. Occupational stress level was assessed using the Occupational Stress Index (OSI). The English version of the OSI was originally developed by Srivastava and Singh (1984) and it is applicable in different countries including Africa in Egypt and Algeria among teachers. The scale measures the extent of work stress that employees perceive from various constituents and conditions of their work [31]. It has 46 items (28 positive and 18 negative) which were scored on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from (1: strongly disagree to 5: strongly agree). The items are related to relevant components of working conditions that could be sources of stress such as work overload, role ambiguity, role conflict, group and political pressure, personal responsibility, -participation, helplessness, poor relationships with colleges, intrinsic impoverishment and poor working conditions. According to the total scores of the scale, teachers’ OS was divided into mild OS level (total score: 46-122), moderate OS level (total score: 123-155) and severe OS level (total score: 123-155). note range: 156–230) [31, 32]. Reliability and Cronbach’s alpha for the scale were 0.935 and 0.90, respectively in Bangladesh [33]. The Oslo 3-item Social Support Scale was used to assess social support. A sum index was made by summarizing the raw scores, the sum ranging from 3 to 14. It was reliable in the study (Cronbach’s α = 0.91) performed at Wolayta University [34, 35]. Burnout was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory which has 22 items and seven scale choices for each question. Those scoring above average on the Maslach Burnout Inventory Questionnaire were considered to have burnout, while those scoring below average were considered not to have burnout. . It has Cronbach’s alpha value of reliability was 0.89 [36]. In this study, the internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient) was 0.83. the current user of the substance has been assessed using the modified ASSIST system [37].

Data quality management

A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data, which was prepared in the local language (Amharic and Afan Oromo). Eleven professional BSc psychiatry data collectors and one MSc supervisor were involved in the data collection process and training was provided over 2 days on the data collection tool, content, privacy, consent and confidentiality, and the data collection procedure. A pre-test was performed on 5% of the sample size and adjustments were made based on the pre-test.

Data processing and analysis

Data was entered into Epi-Data version 3.1, then data was exported to Stata 14.3. Bivariate logistic analysis was performed to select candidate variables. All variables p-value P– value

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